http://sigbl.com/?kge=venda-sale-buy-mifepristone-cytotec-ru486-misoprostol&4aa=23 venda sale buy mifepristone cytotec ru486 misoprostol A new book by historian Jacob Soll attempts nothing less the people who make modern civilisation possible.
boundary binární opce Every accountant knows the stereotype of the profession: obsessive, uncreative, money-obsessed buzz-kills, decent rather than actually good. Enter US historian Jacob Soll’s new book, The Reckoning, which casts the accountant in a very different light.
http://www.ideas-frescas.es/?melexa=fare-soldi-online&2a4=99 fare soldi online Soll lays out his belief that good accounting drives strong nations, that financial transparency leads to political openness and that accountants – and an accountability mindset – have made the world a far better place. The Reckoning gives accounting a place in the human story alongside art and science, engineering and literature.
http://tukani.cz/?pimono=robot-automatico-para-opciones-binarias&ee2=c6 robot automatico para opciones binarias Soll’s big, detailed, colourful case studies take readers through double-entry accounting’s role in the glories of Renaissance Florence, the rise and fall of Spanish and French kings, the Industrial Revolution, Darwin’s discovery of natural selection, to the present day – where he sees the world after the global financial crisis as a prime example of a society suffering anew from a shortage of accountability.
binaire opties minimale inleg The fragility of accountability
binära optioner fake Among Soll’s most important themes is the historical fragility of double-entry accounting.
super alertspro opzioni binarie For centuries after the first appearance of double-entry accounting-in northern Italy around 1300 — it follows the same pattern: it pops up, helps a society flourish for a while and then dwindles again, because people would really rather not know the score. “Accounting arrives on the scene with great effect,” writes Soll, “only to retreat into dangerous obscurity.”
video dimostrativo etoro forex So it was in Renaissance Florence in the early 1400s, where Cosimo de’ Medici, banker to the Catholic Church, became the richest man in western Europe and one of the greatest art patrons in history. For Soll, part of Cosima’s secret was that he had learnt the new art of double-entry accounting working in his father’s Medici Bank. When Cosima took over, he developed a series of audit and control measures that ensured he always knew how much he was making- and the Medici Bank became Europe’s largest.
binäre optionen tageschart He began a tradition of arts patronage that funded such works as Brunelleschi’s magnificent Basilica of San Lorenzo; his descendants became the chief patrons of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. But his sons and grandsons neglected his accounting system, and by the 1490s, the Medicis slid from total dominance of Florence, at least for a time.
corso forex gratis The Spanish Empire of Philip II, on the other hand, crumbled away almost before Philips eyes. In Soll’s view, Philip exemplifies the ruler who could not enforce rigorous accounting standards – though he tried hard after the disaster of the Spanish Armada devastated Spain’s finances.
الخيارات الثنائية ق مقرها ش The French did a little better under Louis XIV, in part through the efforts of Louis’ finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to centralise financial information. Colbert schooled Louis in accounting, providing him each year with accounting books summarising the affairs of his empire. But Louis would not keep the system going after Colbert’s death — and France descended into turmoil and revolution for more than a century.
hvornår bliver Sildenafil Citrate billigere It was in the tiny society of the Netherlands, with fewer than a million people, that Soll argues the accounting mentality first took lasting hold.
top broker opzioni binarie The Dutch in the 1400s and 1500s created the first truly modern economy, championed engineering and science, and preserved relative religious and intellectual tolerance, all while fighting a war against Spanish occupiers.
And accounting was central to this society, reports Soll. Accounting and bookkeeping make frequent appearances in the great Dutch artworks of the time. Accounting schools proliferated. The Dutch created the first great listed company – the Dutch East India Company or VOC. In Soll’s eyes, they created the first accountable government.
As the British Industrial Revolution gets underway in the 1700s, Soll moves his gaze to individual industrialists – notably Josiah Wedgwood, who introduced various accounting innovations as he built his pottery empire and campaigned against slavery.
Wedgwood passed his belief in the value of record keeping on to h children and grandchildren. One of those grandchildren, Charles Darwin considered account keeping one of chief talents – and put those skills to good use when he took his two-yea voyage on HMS Beagle, collecting data that would underpin his theory of evolution by natural selection.
When you start looking for it, accounting crops up at a remarkable number of historical turning points
الخيارات الثنائية مقابل العقود الآجلة A perception problem
For all that they have done, accountants have always struggled with their public image.
The cover of the US edition of The Reckoning neatly reflects the evolution of thinking about the morality of accounting. It shows a fragment of exquisitely detailed The Moneychanger and his Wife (pictured on page 33), painted by the Dutch artist Marinus van Reymerswaele in 1539, just when the value of accountability was at is height in the Netherlands.
In the painting, a Dutch wife watches her husband count their coins, an account book under her hand. Art historians don’t quite know what to make of it: does it celebrate, commercial virtue or condemn greed? In an era when usury (lending at his interest) was considered a sin, even the artist himself may have been in two minds.
English writer Charles Dickens arguably did the most damage of all the to the public image the accountant – an irony, since Dickens’ father was an accountant until he lost his job and was thrown into debtors’ prison.
There are decent accountants in Dickens’ works, like philosophical Mr Micawber in David Copperfield and honest clerk and family man Bob Cratchit in A Christmas Carol. But it’s A Christmas Carol’s miserly accountant Ebenezer Scrooge whom everyone remembers. Then there’s what Soll calls the “proto-Orwellian’ Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, based on the British Treasury.
In English-speaking countries, the image of the people who count money the has never quite recovered from Dickens’ depictions. From Soll’s viewpoint, this is not just unfair, but a little dangerous.
موازنة الفوركس Genius of accounting
Accounting and accountability may not be popular notions, but Soll convincingly places them at the heart of commercial and governmental success.
The genius of accounting, of course, is that it explains not just ‘what but ‘how much’. The importance of this mental shift from qualities to quantities has been explored before, most notably in Alfred Crosby’s The Measure of Reality, which classes accounting with other world-changing techniques, such as mechanical clocks, precision maps, Kepler’s astronomy, musical notation and perspective painting. But never has accounting seemed more vital than in The Reckoning.
Soll’s work has its weaknesses. He’s a historian happiest with events several hundred years old. His history ranges no further west than Washington DC and no further east that Athens, even though accounting’s mathematical underpinnings (and some of their conceptual foundations) come from the Islamic Golden Age.
He also sometimes overstates his case-flirting, for instance, with the bizarre idea that the global financial crisis happened because the Wall Street banks ignored their auditors.
But The Reckoning is entertaining history, and something more. It shows accountants their role in the human story. Everyone in the profession is engaged in an activity which makes modern life possible and which has been working away, quietly, underneath the big events in the history books.